Document of title to goods are defined by Section 2 of the Sale of Goods Act 1930 as


―A bill of lading, dock warehouse keeper‘s certificate, railway receipt and any other document used in the ordinary course of business as proof of the possession or control of goods or authorizing to either by endorsement and delivery, the possessor of the document to transfer or receive goods thereby represented.‖ The following are some of the documents of title to goods. 1. Bill of lading 2. Dock warrant 3. Railway receipt(R.R.) or Lorry receipt (L.R) 4. Delivery order, and 5. Warehouse keeper‘s Certificate.


1. Bill of Lading:

This represents goods sent by ship. Only on production of this document, the captain of the ship will deliver the goods. A bill of lading is a quasi negotiable instrument. That is, it can be transferred but the transferee cannot get a better title than transferor and any defect in the instrument will also affect the transferee, even if he is a holder in due course. If the freight changes are due on a bill of lading, and without knowing this, if a person obtains the same, he cannot obtain a favorable title as the captain will refuse to deliver the goods.


2. Dock warrant:

After taking delivery of the goods from the ship, the goods will be kept in the dock and the dock master will give a certificate which is a dock warrant. Only on production of the dock warrant, the goods will be delivered.


3. Railway Receipt or Lorry Receipt:

When the wholesaler dispatches goods to the retailer, under the condition that documents are negotiable through the bank, the documents, railway receipts or lorry receipts will be sent to the bank of the retailer. The retailer‘s bank will intimate him (the retailer) about the receipt of L.R. or R.R. which is representing the goods sent by lorry or rail. The retailer after making payment into the bank, will take delivery of these documents. Later, he will produce it to the railway authorities if it is R.R and to lorry authorities if it is L.R. and take delivery of tools.


4. Delivery Order:

It is a document which is addressed by the owner of the goods to the custodian or . possessor of goods, normally the warehouse keeper. It is an instruction whereby either the whole goods or part of the goods kept in the warehouse to be delivered to particular person named in the document.


5. Warehouse keeper’s certificate:

A warehouse is a scientific storage and licensed by the government and the quality of goods will remain the same in spite of a longer period of storage. The receipt given by the warehouse keeper on receipt of goods is called warehouse keeper‘s certificate which can be used for obtaining loan from the bank.



THE PRINCIPAL FORMS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ARE: 1. Stock 2. Bearer bonds and 3. Promissory notes



A stock holder is given a certificate indicating the amount of a specified loan held by him. The name of the stock holder is entered in the books of the public debt office. The certificates are not transferable by endorsement.


Bearer Bonds

A Bearer bond certifies that the bearer is entitled to certain sum specified on the date indicated. The bearer of the bonds possesses the ownership. The title to the bonds is transferred by mere delivery without any formality.


Promissory Notes

Promissory notes contain a promise by the President of India in case of Central Government and by the Governor of the State in case of State Government Securities to pay the specified sum of money to the holder of the note or the last endorsee whose name appears on the reverse, on a specified date or after certain notice, according to the terms issue. A promissory note is negotiable one. The title to the promissory note passes by endorsement and delivery.


Corporate securities

The corporate securities comprise the ownership securities such as equity shares and preference shares and creditor ship securities such as debentures.


Merits of stock Exchange Securities

(1) Liquidity:

Stock and shares can be easily realized if the borrower is unable to pay the debt. The existence of ready market provides liquidity to the security.

(2) Safety:

In normal times the securities enjoy stability of value. in times of recession the value of security may undergo fluctuations. But gilt-edged securities are less susceptible to the changes. Nowadays even corporate securities are unaffected by business cycle.

(3) Few legal formalities:

Investigation of the title involves no complication as in the case of real estates. The formalities to be observed are few which facilitate easy transfer of securities and minimize the expenses.

(4) Negotiable securities:

Some of the securities such as bearer bonds bearer debentures, share warrants and government promissory notes are fully negotiable. a. The banker gets good title and from all defects if he acts bonfire. b. The securities empower the banker to dispose them of without customer‘s assistance. c. Transfer of the securities requires no stamp duty and so is inexpensive.

(5) Appropriation of income towards Loan:

Income received on such securities by way of interest or dividend can be appropriated towards the debt which automatically reduces the liability of the borrower.

(6) Easier valuation:

The market value of these securities can be easily ascertained from quotations given in stock exchange reports or newspapers.



A debenture is a document issued by a company as an evidence of debt. It is an acknowledgment of company‘s indebtedness to its holders. The debentures carry a predetermined rate of interest payable at regular intervals. The principal is generally payable on maturity varying upon 10 years. The amount of debenture is usually secured by a fixed or floating charge on the company‘s assets.



Debentures as security are acceptable to bankers because of the following advantages. 1. Debentures give prior claim on the profits and assets of the company. 2. Debentures are easily marketable. 3. The value and title of the borrower could be ascertained easily. 4. Transfer of debentures involves minimum expenses.


Life Insurance policy

A life insurance is a contract between a person known as insured and the insurance company called insurer. According to the contract, the insurance company undertakes to pay, to the person for whose benefit the insurance is made, a certain sum of money or annuity on the death of the person whose life is insured.


Kinds of Insurance Policy

A life insurance policy may be a, (i) Whole life policy (ii) Endowment Policy


Whole Life Policy

In a whole life policy the premier are paid throughout the life of the insured person and the policy amount becomes payable on the death of the insured.


Endowment Policy

In case of an endowment Policy premiere payable during the stated period or till death, if earlier. The policy money is payable on the expiry of the period or on the death of the insured.


Advantages of Life Policy as Security

(i) Liquid security:

A life policy can be easily realized. If he borrower fails to repay the loan, the bank can surrender the policy and get payment of surrender value. If the e customer dies the insurance company would be ever ready to pay the amount covered by the policy. So life policy is a liquid security.


(ii) Stability in value:

A life policy is stable in value. Its surrender value continually increases, provided the premier are paid regularly. The surrender value is the minimum amount which will be paid by the insurance company if the policy is surrendered before its maturity.

(iii) No problem in ascertaining the value:

The value of the policy can be easily ascertained. Sometimes, the policy it self indicates how the surrender value is to be calculated, if it does not do so, the company will supply required information.

(iv) Assignment made easy:

The policy can be easily assigned in favour of the banker. The legal formalities connected with the assignment is simple. The banker gets perfect title without much difficulty.

(v) No supervision:

The life policy remains in the custody of the bank. The security requires little supervision except that the bank must watch the regular payment of premiums.



(i) Evasion of facts when policy is effected:

A contract of insurance is a contract of Uberriemae fide i.e. contract mad in utmost good faith. This means the insured must disclose all material facts relating to his life at the time of taking the policy.

(ii) Non-payment of premia:

A life policy depends for its continued vaidity for the amount insured on the regular payment of premia. There is a risk that the customer may not be able to pay future premiums. The policy will lapse if the assured fails to pay the premia regularly.

(iii)Risk in case of suicide:

A life policy contains a number of conditions. For example, almost all policies have a ‗suicide clause‘ stating that if the assured commits suicide within the period from the date of insurance, the policy becomes void.


(iv) Admission of age:

The insured must have forwarded his birth certificate and this mist have been accepted by the insurance company. In its absence the difficulty arises in claiming the amount of the policy.


(v) Insurable interest:

There is a slight risk that the person taking out the policy may have had no insurable interest in the life assured. In such case the contract becomes void.

Fixed deposit receipt

Fixed Deposits which are repayable after the expiry of a certain period are excellent security to obtain advance from banks. The depositor who is in urgent need or money can seek loans by pledging the Fixed Deposit Receipt. 1. Deposit receipt in borrower‘s name: Advance should be granted to the person in whose name the deposit stands. If the deposit is in two or more names, a letter o authority signed by all authorizing the banker to grant loan to one or more of them should be obtained. 2. Deposit receipt in minor‘s name: No advance should ordinarily be granted against a deposit standing in the name of amino. In exceptional cases, an advance could be made after getting a declaration from the guardian that the amount will be utilized for the benefit of the minor. 3. Advances against third party receipt: Banks may allow advances on the security of third party fixed deposit receipt issued by their own bank. In such a case the banker should get the receipt duly discharged by the owner of the receipt and a letter of request sighed by him authorizing the bank to hold the receipt as security for the advance. 4. Discharge of the deposit receipt: A fixed deposit receipt accepted for advance should be discharged by the depositor putting his signature across the appropriate revenue stamp. 5. Note the lien: The bank‘s lien should be noted in the fixed deposit receipt and ledger and also on the face of the receipt under the signature of an authorized bank officer. 6. Margin: According to the directive issued by the Reserve Bank, a margin of not less than 25% is to be maintained while granting loans against any deposit. 7. Rate of interest: According to the Reserve Bank Directive the rate of interest chargeable on a loan against fixed deposit receipt shall be at least two percent above the interest payable on such deposit if the deposit is in the name of the borrower.



Usually advances against fixed deposit receipts are automatically adjusted on maturity from the proceeds of the deposits. If payment is made before due date, the deposit receipt is returned to the borrower after cancellation of discharge there on.


  1. Thanks for ones marvelous posting! I definitely enjoyed
    reading it, you’re a great author.I will make
    certain to bookmark your blog and will come back at some point.
    I want to encourage you to ultimately continue your great writing, have a nice holiday weekend!

  2. Bradleyutemo says:

    ivermectin 12 mg stromectol price
    ivermectin 5

  3. Johnniewap says:

    purchase ivermectin stromectol for sale – ivermectin lice

  4. RodneyGORIE says:

    canadian medications legal to buy prescription drugs from canada – buy anti biotics without prescription

  5. ClintonGog says:

    zithromax 500 price order zithromax – buy cheap generic zithromax

  6. ClintonGog says:

    zithromax 500 mg order zithromax – zithromax purchase online

  7. ClintonGog says:

    hydroxychloroquine sulfate nz online doctor to prescribe hydroxychloroquine – cost of plaquenil in australia

  8. Davidapast says:

    cialis professional vs cialis cialis without a prescription paypal

  9. AndreViDay says:

    buy viagra online without a prescription viagra for women

  10. AndreViDay says:

    viagra without a doctor prescription buy viagra order

  11. AndreViDay says:

    buy viagra pills viagra prices

  12. AndreViDay says:

    ivermectin for humans ivermectin pills

  13. Daviddwera says:

    tamoxifen citrate buy nolvadex – tamoxifen alternatives

  14. Daviddwera says:

    ventolin inhaler no prescription ventolin generic – ventolin 100 mcg

  15. Daviddwera says:

    tamoxifen reviews nolvadex generic – tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention

  16. Daviddwera says:

    cheap valtrex 1000 mg valtrex – valtrex prescription canada

  17. Daviddwera says:

    tamoxifen endometrium nolvadex – clomid nolvadex

  18. Daviddwera says:

    buy ventolin canada buy ventolin over the counter australia – canada pharmacy ventolin

  19. Daviddwera says:

    ventolin tablets buy buy ventolin – ventolin 2.5

  20. DonaldVoive says:

    prednisone cheap online generic drugs cheap generic pills zithromax cheap online generic drugs

  21. Carloszen says:

    lasix generic ed pills from canada cheap generic pills zoloft cheap generic drugs from canada cheap generic pills cipro

  22. DonaldVoive says:

    zoloft generic ed pills from canada generic ed pills from canada cytotec cheap online generic drugs

  23. Carloszen says:

    doxycycline cheap generic drugs from canada generic ed pills from canada doxycycline cheap generic pills cheap online generic drugs prednisone

  24. DonaldVoive says:

    stromectol generic pills generic ed pills from canada zithromax cheap generic pills

  25. Carloszen says:

    cytotec buy pills online cheap cheap generic pills zithromax cheap generic ed pills buy pills online cheap nolvadex

  26. RichardIsoli says: what is stromectol

  27. AngelWab says:

    how long does cialis last standard dose of cialis how long does cialis last drug viagra

  28. Achat De Viagra En Suisse En Cholet

  29. RichardIsoli says: sildenafil 20 mg tablet uses

  30. AngelWab says:

    cialis dosage recommendations standard dose of cialis 20mg cialis side effects stromectol ivermectin drug

  31. AngelWab says:

    stromectol what is it stromectol human dosage what is stromectol prescribed for normal dosage of cialis

  32. RichardIsoli says: stromectol 3mg tablets

  33. AngelWab says:

    sildenafil 20 mg tablet uses how to take viagra for maximum effect sildenafil 20 mg tablet uses long term effects of cialis

  34. RichardIsoli says: is there a skin reaction to stromectol

  35. AngelWab says:

    what is stromectol stromectol ivermectin dosage what is stromectol stromectol 3mg tablets

  36. RichardIsoli says: what does stromectol treat

  37. AngelWab says:

    how to increase viagra effectiveness drug viagra best time to take viagra how to take 20 mg cialis

  38. RichardIsoli says: cialis risks and side effects

  39. AngelWab says:

    cialis medication cialis strength levels cialis dosage recommendations stromectol how to take

  40. RichardIsoli says: stromectol human dosage

  41. AngelWab says:

    how to take 20 mg cialis long term effects of cialis 20mg cialis side effects is there a skin reaction to stromectol

  42. StevenSceds says: covid treatment baricitinib

  43. Travismuh says:

    where to buy baricitinib baricitinib eua fact sheet – where to buy baricitinib best place to buy careprost
    stromectol online canada [url=]stromectol for sale[/url] ivermectin 6mg

  44. StevenSceds says: hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablet

  45. Travismuh says:

    ivermectin 1mg stromectol – ivermectin online baricitinib price
    hydroxychloroquine medication [url=]plaquenil arthritis[/url] hydroxychloroquine 100mg

  46. Travismuh says:

    can you buy stromectol over the counter stromectol over the counter – where to buy ivermectin pills purchase stromectol online
    plaquenil sulfate [url=]buy plaquenil online[/url] plaquenil 200mg tablets 100

  47. Travismuh says:

    bimatoprost generic careprost bimatoprost ophthalmic best price – bimatoprost buy careprost bimatoprost for sale
    careprost bimatoprost ophthalmic best price [url=]bimatoprost ophthalmic solution careprost[/url] bimatoprost buy online usa

  48. StevenSceds says: bimatoprost generic best price

  49. Travismuh says:

    ivermectin cream 5% stromectol for sale – ivermectin 12 careprost bimatoprost ophthalmic best price
    buy baricitinib [url=]buy baricitinib[/url] barinat

  50. StevenSceds says: plaquenil tab 200mg

  51. Michaeldon says:

    xmkbrx ivermectin eye drops

  52. Dwayneguica says:

    ivermectin purchase stromectol for humans for sale – stromectol tablets buy online
    jgasbg ivermectin 5

  53. Michaeldon says:

    tcrlat ivermectin where to buy

  54. Sounsep says:

    [url=]prix levitra pharmacie pas[/url] A simple sensorymotor neuron circuit is shown in Fig. liftCese

  55. mgtlqsxiyd says:


  56. Quems says:

    It is still a work in progress and we would love to hear your feedback. I wasn’t aware of this until a quick Google search, but there is a waterproof version of the telescopic mascara as well. I’ve just been using the original and I have similar issues with smudging (spring is going to be hell with that mascara) More about loreal telescopic ranges and the mascaras available here: Forgot Your Username? i’ve seen so many people talk about this mascara but in my experience it smudges after about an hour, the formula is very wet which sometimes ends up clumping esp at the base, and the wand is extremely flimsy… it does lengthen my lashes like crazy tho so i have to give it that- it might also be because im asian and have monolids but just putting it out there for anyone who’s thinking of trying it Forget the harsh scrubs of years past. Medicube Red Body Wash is soothing and gentle on all skin types but is especially beneficial for acne-prone skin. When you skim the ingredients list and spot salicylic acid, lactic acid, and niacinamide, you'll understand why. Those two powerhouse ingredients refine texture and minimize excess sebum for clearer, softer skin from the neck down, and there's also a healthy dose of hyaluronic acid to seal in moisture. Our skin is weakly acidic, which means the pH levels of human skin ranges between 4.7-5.7 (2). A cleanser with a pH number higher than that is not recommended for your skin. If your cleanser produces too much foam (no matter how deeply cleansing it may seem), it is most likely alkaline and not good for your skin. “This stuff works! Whether overnight or just for 10 minutes, it 100% plumps and brightens the skin.” — Emily Algar, Product Tester

  57. porno says:

    I found your web page from bing and it is excellent sdfsdkfpjşsmlfsdfdskj

  58. porno says:

    I was obtaining difficulty not thinking of some firm opportunities, so I began trying to find some unusual blogs sdfsdkfpjşsmlfsdfdskj

  59. doeda says:

    Your write up is a good example of it sdfsdkfpjşsmlfsdfdskj

  60. porno says:

    Or maybe you shouldnt generalise so significantly sdfsdkfpjşsmlfsdfdskj

  61. porno says:

    What I wouldnt give to have a debate with you about this sdfsdkfpjşsmlfsdfdskj

  62. Bir erkek için manita aslında cinsel zevklerini bir anlamda giderebileceği kız arkadaştır Boşanmış Ve Dul Bayanlar Telefonları chat yapın.

  63. Eşsiz kadınlar ile sıcak sohbetleri ucuz fiyata yapmak için arayın Canlı Sex Odaları chat yapın.

  64. Seks Hattı Arayarak SevişmekBenim gibi yabancı birçok erkekle cinsel birliktelik yaşayan çıtır kızlar var hatlarda Kayseri Sohbet Odaları chat yapın.

  65. Mucize gibi anlar ve en keyifli anlar hemen yanı başınızda Erotik Kadın Numaraları chat yapın.

  66. İlgini çekebilir: Türk genç kız numaraları Dul Sohbet Hattıİstanbul’un en güzel ve seksi kadınlarını tek çırpıda ulaşılabilir kılan seks sohbet hatları aynı zamanda numaralarını da sizlere sunuyor Güzel Kız Arkadaş Tel Numaraları chat yapın.

  67. Aradığınız numaralarda karşınıza çıkan kadınların erkek kıtlığına girmiş ülke kadınları gibi olduklarını da düşünmeyin tamamen orgazm olmayı yaşam biçimi olarak benimsemiş sizin onları aramanız ile artık kısa süreliğine seks partnerleri oluyorsunuz Ateşli Sohbet Numaraları chat yapın.

  68. Sex HattıSahip olduğunuz tüm eğlenceyi nasıl yaşamak ve özgürce eğlenmek istersiniz? Şimdi büyük bir fırsatın olacak Telefonda Seks Numaraları chat yapın.

  69. Sadece beni çılgın benzer biçimde dilek eden ve bensiz yapamayacak kadar kudurmuş kişiler ile görüşeceğim Türkçe Sex Hattı chat yapın.

  70. Bayanlarımızın kanıyla, zengin ve renkli paylaşımlarıyla seks sohbet hattı adresimiz sizi bekliyor ve tutkulu mutluluğunuz yanınızda olacak Alo Sohbet Sitesi chat yapın.

  71. Slogan belli aslında Telefonda sınırsız sohbet et ve doyumsuz boşalma keyfini dilediğin gibi yaşa Edirne Canlı Sohbet Hattı Hizmetinizde chat yapın.

  72. İster dertlerinizi paylaşın isterseniz seks hikayeleri anlatın bir şekilde sizi o gece hattan istediğiniz şekilde ayrılmanızı sağlayacaklar Ucuz Sohbet Hattı Numarası chat yapın.

  73. sex hatları sex hatları

  74. Sadece numarayı çevirmeniz ve konuşmaya başlamanız yeterli olacaktır Sex Sohbet Hatları chat yapın.

  75. Hemen size göre hangi numara iyiyse hangi hatun daha çekici ve erotik geliyorsa onunla telefonu kapatana kadar tarifi olmayan anlar yaşamaya başlayın Telefonda Porno Sohbeti Numaraları chat yapın.

  76. Ama bazıları için güven ön planda olur ve artık sadece sizinle telefonda konuşarak boşalma işini yapabilir gerçek sesli seks hikayeleri chat yapın.

  77. Telefonda Sınırsız Seks Numarası : 0044560183306 İlgini çekebilir: Ucuza Telefonda Ateşli Sohbet Dul Sohbet HattıHer evli kadın erkeğine baştan aşağıya bağlı değil ve o hayatında olsa dahi ufak ufak belki ara sıra büyük kaçamaklar ile onları aldatabiliyorlar kayitsiz sex sohbet

  78. Size özel 7/24 müsait olan ve yataklarında öylece bir erkek ile ayıp şeyler konuşup günü tatmin olmuş bir halde bitirmek isteyen kadınlara ulaşmak artık çok kolay ucuz seks hatti

  79. Yine de en uygun fiyata yetişkin sohbeti yapıp canlı boşalabileceğiniz kadınlarla bu fırsatı kaçırmayın telefonda canlı sex

  80. En ucuz sohbet numarası adresini kullanarak hayatınızın en özel ve harika zamanını yaşayabilir ve renkli bir çağa adım atabilirsiniz sex telefon

  81. Telekız Sohbet NumaralarıTelekız Sohbet Numaraları Cep telefonunuz ile olduğu benzer biçimde sabit hatlardan da aramanızı gerçekleştirebilir ve hiç bitmesini istemeyeceğiniz heyecan dolu sıcak sohbetler yapabilirsiniz turbanli canli sex

  82. Daha önce araştırıp pek Türkçe kaynak bulamadığım sorundu Elinize sağlık eminim arayan çok kişi vardır.

  83. Hi there to all, for the reason that I am genuinely keen of reading this website’s post to be updated on a regular basis. It carries pleasant stuff.

  84. microsoft surface servisi, İstanbul’un kalbinde bulunan Perpa Ticaret Merkezi’nde uzun yıllardır müşterilere kusursuz hizmet sunmaktadır.

  85. I just like the helpful information you provide in your articles

  86. İnstagram says:
    instagram takipçi al, instagram beğeni al, twitter takipçi al, tiktok takipçi al, tiktok izlenme al, tiktok ücretsiz takipçi, instagram ücretsiz takipçi şifresiz takipçi al, instagram fenomen nasıl olunur.

  87. Hukuk Burolarina Ozel Cagri Merkezi Avantajlari

  88. perpa telefon servisi, İstanbul’un kalbinde bulunan Perpa Ticaret Merkezi’nde uzun yıllardır müşterilere kusursuz hizmet sunmaktadır.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *